MLBN Open Data & Final Docs Published

I’m incredibly excited to announce that after three years of research, we have successfully completed our IMLS funded Measuring Library Broadband Networks (MLBN) project! All of our broadband measurement data, as well as all of the technical documentation related to the project, are open access and freely available for download via our MLBN Dataverse.

We have several open datasets and documents available in our Dataverse, including the following:

    • Year 1 MLBN Measurements – This dataset contains performance measurements collected at participating libraries during the first MLBN program year.
    • Year 2 MLBN Measurements – This dataset contains: Measurements conducted by devices in the MLBN program between 2020-02-01 and 2021-01-31 from 30 participating libraries and data provenance document describing: data collection instruments, data preparation and cleaning methods, generation of relevant metadata tables, and final analysis methods description.
    • Murakami Measurement Software – This dataset contains the code used on each MLBN measurement device, copied from Github:
    • Murakami Visualization Software – This dataset contains a copy of the standalone data visualization service, murkami-viz, produced during the MLBN program. The current version of the software can be found at:
    • MLBN Traceroutes and Scripts – This dataset contains Bash scripts used to collect traceroutes, conducted from the egress measurement device at each participating MLBN library. Traceroutes were conducted to each Ookla and M-Lab server during the course of the MLBN program.
    • MLBN Measurement System Documentation – This dataset contains comprehensive documentation on using and setting up the MLBN measurement system components.
    • Measuring Library Broadband Networks Training Manual – Final – The Training Manual contains complete documentation about the Measuring Library Broadband Networks project, including an overview of the project, measurement computer setup instructions, software running on the MBLN measurement computers, the data visualization platform, and further technical and troubleshooting details.

On behalf of our entire research team, I’d like to dedicate our work and this project to the memory of James Werle.

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MLBN Meets Need for Transparent, Open Data in Community Anchor Institutions

It goes without saying that 2020 has been a hell of a year. While the pandemic has upended work, school, and life in general, it’s also shone a bright light on the glaring inequities of Internet access, quality of that access, and its cost. Those of us who have worked on digital equity issues and initiatives have known and communicated about this for years– that massive inequities in Internet access, cost, and quality are the natural result of the race and class disparities that have been perpetuated in our country’s general culture. All these issues are intertwined, and in one way or another they’re all important issues for everyone.

While there have been many initiatives attempting to address these inequities during the COVID-19 pandemic, including from the digital inclusion and non-profit communities, as well as ISP programs for reduced cost service and government initiatives at all levels, it’s important to recognize that solving for this isn’t going to happen with old models and tactics. Digital inclusion practitioners, researchers, and policymakers will have to shift and adapt, not to the “new normal” as some have described norms for living in a pandemic, but to the realities that a large number of Americans have experienced for a long time.

So what do we do? Where do we start?

Our MLBN Team is not alone in the desire for data to help understand the issues of Internet access disparities on the ground. Having accurate information is critical for determining how to effectively improve the situation. But as Rachelle Chong and Larry Irving wrote in their recent blog post, titled The Broadband Mapping Flaw that’s Harming Education and Healthcare and published by the Benton Institute for Broadband & Society highlights, flawed data in the federal government’s broadband maps has stopped many communities from being able to access subsidy dollars for building out better access where it’s needed. And as the authors point out, while the Broadband DATA Act enacted earlier this year, “directs the FCC to improve its maps by gathering and publishing more granular data about broadband availability,” the FCC’s recent broadband mapping proposal wouldn’t collect data from community anchor institutions like schools, libraries, and healthcare providers– institutions that have historically provided a life line of Internet access in communities where broadband disparities are most prominent.

So where is broadband available and where isn’t it? Where do consumers have choice and where don’t they? What are the differences in costs for the same service from the same provider in different parts of the country?

We need new data to help answer these questions, and while the federal government agencies like the FCC, NTIA, and others are all working on these issues, and we actively support these initiatives, what if communities could collect these data on our own?

Our approach in our MLBN research project, funded by a federal grant from the U.S. Institute for Museum and Library Services, was to attempt to understand the conditions of Internet service in public libraries– by measuring it. Our remit was to deliver an open source and replicable broadband measurement platform and documentation on how to use it. We are using the platform to gather quantitative data to achieve the following goals:

  • understand the broadband speeds and quality of service that public libraries receive;
  • assess how well broadband service and infrastructure are supporting their communities’ digital needs;
  • understand broadband network usage and capacity;
  • increase their knowledge of networked services and connectivity needs.

The core of this measurement platform is a software package for measuring an Internet connection using a small computer placed on premise at public libraries and connected to the Internet serving the public. The software is currently named Murakami, which runs various measurements automatically and randomly and can save the data for use by the library.

By running measurements from a standard premise device, we eliminate issues of self-selection bias that can plague analyses of solely crowdsourced data. Seeing measurements like upload and download speeds, latency, etc. collected over time is more informative than a one time speed test, and Murakami enables that data collection. Test results can be saved locally on the device, sent to a lightweight data visualization service we developed, Murakami-Viz, pushed to a central archive on a self-maintained server on site or in the cloud, or sent to a storage location in Google’s Cloud Storage service.

These tools are all public, openly licensed code that can be used freely, and anyone can use this software to measure their Internet connections, keep the data, and track the connections’ performance over time.

This broadband measurement platform addresses a deep need in communities across the U.S. to gather data to do their own assessment of Internet service–an approach which we believe represents an example of the transparency and openness desired from official government sources. This openness and transparency is also why communities increasingly have begun using M-Lab’s data in their policy and advocacy.

Of course, M-Lab measurement services aren’t the only way to measure Internet service, nor should they be. A diversity of measurements from different instruments, measurements of different aspects of a connection, or different segments of the network path between you and the Internet are all relevant. This is one reason why while M-Lab has led the technical development of Murakami, the software doesn’t only include M-Lab tests, currently including both M-Lab NDT protocol tests, as well as a single and multi-stream Ookla test. As we begin to dig deeper into our analysis of the data we’ve collected, we’re looking forward to comparing and contrasting these data.

(Image above from Murakami-Viz in use at the Pryor Public Library in Oklahoma)

As we close out the calendar year, we’re focused on that future where we can measure and understand broadband access and quality using a variety of measurement tools. We’ve invited our participating libraries to review their test data in Murakami-Viz, and look forward to their feedback on it and our program in general in the coming year. M-Lab is continuing to develop Murakami as a tool that enables structured data collection using our platform, as well as using other measurement initiatives and tests.

We’re hopeful for a future where the openness and transparency of measurements of Internet service informs how we solve the access, quality, and cost disparities that have been bluntly exposed by massive shifts to online learning and remote work this year.

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Data & Decision Making: Internet Measurements in Libraries

By Georgia Bullen and Kelsey Smith of Simply Secure

Over the past two years teams from Simmons University, Measurement Lab, and Internet2 have worked together, and more recently with Simply Secure and Throneless Tech, to build a tool that gives power of information to public libraries, providing data about the health of their internet connection.

The importance of internet measurement

The societal role of the library is ever expanding. While libraries continue to promote lifelong learning and reading for people of all ages, they also work on the front lines of a fraying social safety net. They are a resource for adults facing serious life challenges and stressors, such as housing obstacles, criminal justice proceedings, unemployment, and health crises. To serve their communities, libraries have embraced a pivot to digital. This results in a steady concern for adequate hardware, software, and internet quality.

Information is power. There is an information asymmetry between public institutions, like libraries, and the private telecommunications industry that serves them. While interviewing librarians, we heard about a hunger for data:

“I like data. I like anomalous data. Am I doing something similar to the other people around me?”

“This would be great data. If it can be measured it can be improved! We can identify trends.”

“Libraries are all about statistics.”

To deliver internet measurement data to the respective libraries in an accessible format, our team from Simply Secure provided support in user research and design. We set out to design a visualization tool that would allow the various users to access the data, explore it, and therefore benefit from it. While some applications of the data visualization tool are apparent so far, there are many more to be discovered in the future. MLBN provides data that can be used in tandem with other tools for rich comparisons.
Continue reading

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Measurement System Data Analysis

Egress switch broadband data from the Pryor Public Library in Oklahoma

Since our last post, the daily life and work of most everyone on the planet has been altered. Our project’s response to the COVID-19 global pandemic was to pause on all external activities with partner libraries. We suspended shipment of measurement computers to new libraries, and have shifted to documentation and data analysis, along with ongoing development of the measurement system’s data visualization service.

Though our program staff meet regularly and coordinate our work online, we’re waiting on advice from expert public health professionals on when it may be safe to return to working together in person before resuming work with partners at libraries around the country. We definitely don’t think that any libraries should be open right now! Our program work has also of course been delayed by additional responsibilities of helping to moving all of our institutions’ work, classes, and communications online, all while caring for those around us and staying safe ourselves. Continue reading

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Prep, pack, ship, receive, backup – Year 2 libraries coming online!

It’s been a busy start to the year for the MLBN team! Beginning in mid-February we began shipping new, upgraded measurement computers to our year 1 libraries, along with the current version of our training manual. Year 1 libraries are being upgraded with the latest measurement system software release and returning the computers we installed in our visits last year. When we receive their original devices back, we’re copying all data that they collected into our data archive for analysis. So far about half of Year 1 libraries have completed the upgrade.

We’re also confirming details with our Year 2 libraries and shipping them their measurement computers. Libraries participating in year 2 are asked to complete an online intake form, after which we confirm device configuration details, and then configure and ship their measurement devices to them. It’s pretty great to see these devices come online and begin running tests! So far this has been a very smooth process, with about seven libraries up and running. Over the next few weeks we hope to have up to 60 total libraries online and collecting data.

While we experimented with different locations with libraries to connect our measurement computers in the first year, the MLBN team decided to standardize locations in the second year. At each participating library, one measurement computer is being connected at the primary switch or router for the location, to measure the performance of the overall facility; and a second is being connected to a switch port that would otherwise connect a new WiFi access point, measuring the speeds which a single WiFi access point has to serve multiple patrons. This decision was based on the preferences expressed by many of our year 2 libraries, is a more comparable measurement to the device measuring the total location capacity at the switch or router, and that it avoids the technical complexities of allowing a non-library, non-patron computer to bypass patron WiFi consent pages. In some cases, such as in small libraries with only one access point or a lack of dedicated ethernet ports where the library might connect additional access points, we will only connect one measurement computer, connected to the switch or router.

As we deal with the basic logistics of confirming details, configuring, and shipping measurement computers, we’re also completing the initial release of our online data visualization service. Once ready, participating libraries will receive an invitation to login and view the data being collected by the measurement computers in their libraries. Over the remainder of the grant program, library staff will be asked to provide feedback on the data visualizations, and our developers will update and refine the service.

We’re excited to be at this point in the program. Stay tuned for more updates!


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Wrapping up a busy 2019

This fall has been a very busy time for the MLBN team. We’ve been recruiting libraries to participate in our second year of data collection, building a community of interest around Internet measurement in anchor institutions, presenting about our work at multiple conferences, updating the software that runs on our measurement devices, and designing visualizations of the data collected by the measurement system. As we near the end of the calendar, we are excited to share our progress and plans for next year. 

Library Recruitment

Throughout the summer and fall, the MLBN team has been holding recruiting calls with staff at state libraries, research and education networks, and other “intermediary organizations” that serve public libraries. We’ve focused on recruiting libraries to participate in the study through these organizations because they already support libraries, and through their involvement, the community of interest around measuring and assessing Internet service is growing within existing networks of support. To date, we have spoken with contacts at 17 state or regional library commissions/departments, 10 regional Research and Education networks, and 6 other intermediary organizations who support or connect public or tribal libraries.

In all of our conversations with libraries and the intermediaries who helped recruit them, we’ve been encouraged and excited at their interest in this work and at their comments about the desirability of the measurement system we’re developing. We’re looking forward to completing the recruitment of our year 2 participating libraries in January!

Growing Community of Interest

The strong interest among libraries and the organizations that connect and support them has been very encouraging to the team during recruitment calls. Their comments and expressed interest is a validation that we’re doing something useful with and for libraries, administrators, and the organizations that support them. This kind of interest is exactly what we’d hoped to build during this project and will help build a foundation for a sustainable community of interest around measurement of Internet service in public libraries. 

One part of our sustainability plans has been actively sharing our work at various conferences. This year we have presented MLBN work at the 2019 iConference, CSVconf, Library 2.0, the 2019 AnchorNets conference, ISOC’s Indigenous Connectivity Summit, and the Community Informatics Research Network. For a complete list of our presentations and publications, please visit this page on our MLBN project website.

Many of the libraries and intermediary organization staff have wanted to place more measurement computers in more libraries than we’ve budgeted for in this research program. These moments have been very encouraging because they express how our partners see the potential for the measurement system on a wider scale, in advance of our research program. To help library partners who want to test out the system in advance, or who may wish to purchase and implement more measurement locations on their own, we’ve put together a bill of materials for a single measurement computer that we’re using in this program. The total cost per unit at the time of this writing is $84.15 USD + tax & shipping.

MLBN Measurement Computer, Single Unit Bill of Materials:

Measurement Software Updates & Visualization Design

On the technical side, a huge amount of work has gone into improving the measurement system software running on our devices in libraries. M-Lab is currently calling the software Murakami, which provides a series of configurable “test runners” in a Docker container to run on our measurement computers. Murakami can be used on many types of computers, and can be setup on a single device, or on a fleet of managed devices like we’re doing for our research. The software now can export all collected test results to one or more remote storage locations for archiving and/or analysis. 

The “test runners” we’ll use in the second year are:

  • M-Lab’s NDT test – both the current ndt5 protocol and/or the new ndt7 protocol version
  • single stream and multi-stream tests
  • M-Lab’s DASH test (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP)

The addition of the single and multi-stream tests is exciting because the single stream test result is more comparable in methodology to M-Lab’s NDT (ndt5) test. And the addition of the new NDT protocol version test (ndt7) will allow this test to operate in managed  networks where the ndt5 protocol version may have been blocked by network firewall rules. Murakami has also been designed to allow modular addition of new tests as they are identified or developed.

M-Lab is also developing the initial set of visualizations for libraries to view and interact with the data being collected. These will be ready by early February 2020, when we expect libraries will receive their measurement devices and training manual. Our intention is for library staff to provide feedback on the initial data visualizations, which will allow us to iterate and improve them for the final grant deliverable.

Preparing for Year 2 Measurement System Setup

We’re also ramping up preparations for managing the logistics of preparing and shipping ~100 measurement devices to libraries all around the country. Boring things like ensuring we have a FedEx account, materials, and workspace to assemble packages and deliver them. We’re thinking about post-paid return labels for year 1 libraries to return year 1 measurement computers and receive new ones for the second year, and of course we’ve already ordered the equipment in advance of the winter holidays in order to not have items on backorder. These details are fairly mundane, but absolutely critical to ensure we’re ready for a very busy set of tasks in January and February.

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New MLBN Explainer Video

Want to get a fantastic overview of our Measuring Library Broadband Networks (MLBN) project? Check out our new video, courtesy of Carson and Jessikha Block:

The video gives an explanation of the project and talks about what participating libraries can expect. It also has pictures of the measurement devices that libraries will install.

Importantly, the video talks about how the measurement data will help libraries. Libraries that participate in the MLBN project will be able to:

  • Establish baseline data to improve broadband performance
  • Advocate for faster and higher quality internet connections
  • Prompt richer conversations with broadband providers to maximize the value of the library’s broadband investment
  • Plan for the future of the library by documenting the speed and quality of the internet connection
  • Evaluate readiness for future services that require robust connectivity
  • Conduct scalability planning for the library’s internet connection
  • Improve technology confidence for library staff

Click the video above to watch and enjoy!

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Research Featured on MIT’s Network Sovereignty Blog

We are honored to announce that our research is featured in the following post, titled “Networks, Knowledge, and Power in U.S. Public Libraries,” featured on the MIT Network Sovereignty blog, a NSF-funded research project led by Principal Investigators, Ramesh Srinivasan (UCLA) and Lisa Parks (MIT).

Here is more information about the project from the website:

“The blog is inspired by path-breaking research by Saskia Sassen (2000), Wendy Chun (2008), Marisa Duerte (2017), and others, and explores the extent to which communities and people feel empowered and/or controlled by network infrastructures. How are local communities situated in relation to network facilities or endpoints? Who owns and operates the network facilities in communities? Who in the community knows how network facilities work? What local knowledges/ontologies emerge in relation to network infrastructures? How are these infrastructures embedded in everyday life? We are especially interested in studying the sociotechnical relations of low-income, rural communities.”

Read more here:

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Hollis Public Library in Southeast Alaska

There are rural libraries and then there are Alaska bush libraries. The Hollis Public Library (pictured right) is one such library located in Southeast Alaska, which the locals often refer to as the “The Gateway to Prince of Wales Island.”

The Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes are among the original native cultures of this area and continue to live on the island today. Hollis is accessible by float plane or a three-hour ferry ride from Ketchikan if you are traveling north from Seattle, which is what three members from our research team did this past week.

We had the pleasure of visiting with Hollis Library Director, Sandy Curtis and Library Board Secretary Arthur Martin (pictured left) at their lovely library staffed by all volunteers, including Sandy, with one of the most beautiful views our team has seen. The library was established in 1985 and is open 21 hours a week. Our research team was there to install our three measurement devices as we have in our previous 5 year 1 public libraries and to speak with the volunteers and patrons who benefit from the library’s free public computers and wireless internet connectivity.

The library has satellite internet connectivity (pictured right) provided by HughesNet. The library believes they have the fastest internet connection in Hollis, but they do not have the data needed to know if that’s true. Through our project to co-design a broadband measurement platform with public libraries, we hope that the Hollis Public Library will gain access to the data they need to learn more about their library’s Internet connectivity.

Because the satellite internet connection is wired directly from the dish outside to the business class cable modem directly inside the building, which also provides wired and wireless connections to the library’s public computers and internet access, we decided to only install two of our Odroid devices (pictured left) to measure the wired and wireless internet connections.

In all of the other libraries we have been able to install a third device at the egress switch, which will provide us with additional measurements where the internet service enters and exits the library. In Hollis, the HughesNet router provides WiFi and all wired computer connections in the library, and there is no separate switch. Because of this only two measurement devices were needed.

Our team would like to thank Sandy, Arthur, and other Hollis residents who showed us such warm Southeast Alaska hospitality during our visit. We learned a tremendous amount about the library, its internet connectivity, and the beautiful Prince of Wales Island including the amazing Totem Park (pictured right) located in Klawock, which is a major center of Tlingit culture. We all enjoyed our stay, and now we’re all thinking about how we can return to Hollis in the future.

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Early Technology Insights on the Broadband Measurement System

We’re now in the full swing of site visits to our year 1 libraries, visiting Pasco County, FL; Pryor, OK; and Twin Falls, ID over the last three weeks. At each of the ten year 1 libraries, we’re interviewing staff and patrons, getting to know the context and character of our partner libraries’ communities, and gaining a good sense of what it’s like to work at and be a patron of each library. Another important goal related to the installation of the measurement devices is to learn about the library networks’ nuances at each location, refining our device configurations and setup instructions as needed. Our end goal is to uncover most potential barriers to the measurement devices working properly in our year 2 libraries’ networks, where we won’t have the luxury of being there in person.

This iterative work on the measurement system goes back to the pilot research in Alexandria, VA that preceded this program, where findings included a list of technical challenges that would need to be addressed in order to scale up similar initiatives. Among those needs was a service or system to install, manage, remotely administer, and update many small computers placed within managed networks. In Alexandria, installing the operating system and measurement software on each device was manual, and we worked with school IT staff to provide basic remote access. IT staff also helped setup firewall exceptions to allow the Network Diagnostic Tool (NDT) to successfully run, since the Internet ports it currently uses are often blocked in managed networks. While this was fine for a small scale pilot project, it would be untenable in a larger scale research study like this one.

Device Setup and Management

Fortunately we were able to address many of these challenges prior to this program. To provide scalable device setup and management of our measurement devices, we selected Balena Cloud, an “Internet of Things” (IoT) virtualization and device management software as a service (SaaS) provider with a commitment to open source tools. 

Balena allows us to setup and pre-configure a wide array of single board computers, register them in a project connected to our code, provide remote access to them, and enables the ability to push updates to an entire fleet of devices. Balena has also recently released an open source server edition, Open Balena, that should provide a means for self-hosting the tools used in their supported Balena Cloud service. These options fit well with other open source services used by the library community such as LibLime’s support for the open source Integrated Library System, Koha. For this research, we’ve subscribed to the Balena Cloud service, but will also test and document use of Open Balena.

We wanted our measurement system to be easy to set up and manage, and using Balena has made that possible. But also knew that we would need to coordinate with both our year 1 library staff and administrators, as well as with their IT support staff and possibly with their system vendors for a couple of reasons. Depending on the library’s network management practices, firewall exceptions to allow our measurement devices to communicate with Balena services would need to be added. Also, the ports currently used by the NDT test are sometimes blocked by firewalls. However, we expect that by the time we’re working with year 2 libraries, the M-Lab development team will have completed a new release of NDT server and reference client code, which will remove the port requirements for the NDT test. NDT7 will also use the latest TCP compression algorithm, BBR, which stands for Bandwidth, Bottleneck, and Round Trip Time. BBR will enable NDT7 to estimate the end-to-end performance of a connection in approximately 2 seconds and use far less data than the current version, which will enable more accurate measurement of all connections, but in particular satellite and mobile phone Internet service.

The Role of M-Lab Tests and Servers

M-Lab servers through which tests are conducted are hosted within Internet exchange points, or IXPs, and have built in redundancy and testing infrastructure. Each M-Lab server “pod” consists of four servers and a high capacity switch, connected to a single transit provider with an uplink speed between 1 Gbps and 10Gbps.

Currently, M-Lab is in the process of upgrading all US servers to 10Gbps links. In large metro areas, M-Lab hosts between 4 and 8 server pods, each connected to different providers. Three of the servers in each pod are used for production traffic, and the fourth is used for testing. As a part of a large project to update the software on the M-Lab platform, the M-Lab team has deployed the NDT7 server to its testing servers, and an early release of the NDT7 client, libndt, is available to test against these M-Lab beta test servers. During this program, we are initially using the current version of NDT, but will also use the libndt client and M-Lab’s test NDT7 servers, particularly in our libraries that may have very restrictive firewalls or have satellite connections to the Internet.

Developing the Training Manual

To scale up to 50+ libraries in our second year we need to have a very clear setup guide to send to partner libraries along with pre-configured measurement devices, which includes both the requirements for IT staff to connect each device, as well as a list of potential nuances that might be present in specific library settings.

Prior to each year 1 library visit, when emailing to coordinate times, travel, schedules, etc. we’re sending a document that describes what will be installed at their library, and asks librarian and/or IT staff to provide key information needed to make the installation go as smoothly as possible. Some of the questions from this document include:

  • If your library’s public WiFi network requires a patron to complete a consent for, acceptable use agreement page, etc. can this be disabled for our measurement devices?
  • What is the name (SSID) of your public WiFi network?
  • If a password for WiFi is required, what is the password?
  • If you need our measurement devices to be configured with static IP addresses, please provide:
    • The three IP addresses our devices should use (2 wired, one WiFi)
    • The subnet size of each IP address
    • The IP address of the gateway
  • Does your library wish to add more measurement devices, funded from your budgets? If yes, how many devices are you considering adding?

As we visit each of our year 1 libraries, we are refining this document based on our experiences with the installation.This document will help produce the complete setup guide that will be sent to our year 2 participating libraries.

Lessons Learned

We’ve learned a number of important things in our first four site visits related both to the pre-visit preparation library and their IT staff have done, and nuances related to how libraries IT staff or support implement our system requirements. Some of those nuances include:

  • Firewall exceptions/rules are implemented in different ways by library IT staff or service providers, often based on the infrastructure they use, or the vendor system being used.
    • Implications for our documentation:
    • Supporting static IP addresses configured on each device may be necessary
    • Providing the MAC address of each device’s network interfaces will be needed in some libraries
  • Adding exceptions for our WiFi devices to avoid captive portals and for tests to run correctly could prove difficult to manage, depending on the WiFi system, vendor product, or vendor support.
    • Implications for our documentation:
    • Determining an easy way for library staff and IT to test that firewall rules/exceptions provide the right access for our system may be needed.
  • WiFi configurations on our devices need an explicit configuration to prioritize the WiFi interface instead of the ethernet interface.

These experiences have emphasized for our team the critical importance of the close relationships we are forming with our year 1 libraries and the need for site visits to uncover as many potential scaling issues as possible. We’re incredibly grateful for the support and contributions of our partner libraries throughout this process.

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